Proto-Celtic language

Early inhabitants[ edit ] In the territory now covered by the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, there is evidence of primitive inhabitants right back to the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age over 35, years ago. The oldest artifacts from this period are decorated bones found at Oetrange. Traces have been found in the south of Luxembourg at Aspelt , Weiler-la-Tour , as well as at Grevenmacher and Diekirch. The dwellings were made of a combination of tree trunks for the basic structure, mud-clad wickerwork walls, and roofs of thatched reeds or straw. These include Nospelt , Dalheim , Mompach and Remerschen. The Hallstatt culture[ edit ] The discovery in of a prehistoric cemetery at Hallstatt in Austria revealed distinctive artifacts from the Neolithic through to the early Iron Age from to BC.

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Background[ edit ] The ancient peoples now called “Celts” spoke a group of languages that had a common origin in the Indo-European language known as Common Celtic or Proto-Celtic. This shared linguistic origin was once widely accepted by scholars to indicate peoples with a common genetic origin in southwest Europe, who had spread their culture by emigration and invasion.

More recent genetic studies have indicated that various Celtic groups do not all have shared ancestry, and have suggested a diffusion and spread of the culture without necessarily involving significant movement of peoples.

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Scots Gaelic samhainn, Old Irish samain “summer’s end”, from sam “summer” and fuin “end” is a festival on the end of the harvest season in Gaelic and Brythonic cultures, with aspects of a festival of the dead. Many scholars believe that it was the beginning of the Celtic year. The term derives from the name of a month in the ancient Celtic calendar, in particular the first three nights of this month, with the festival marking the end of the summer season and the end of the harvest.

The Gaelic festival became associated with the Catholic All Souls’ Day, and appears to have influenced the secular customs now connected with Halloween. Samhain is also the name of a festival in various currents of Neopaganism inspired by Gaelic tradition. Etymology The Irish word Samhain is derived from the Old Irish samain, samuin, or samfuin, all referring to November 1st latha na samna: Its meaning is glossed as ‘summer’s end’, and the frequent spelling with f suggests analysis by popular etymology as sam ‘summer’ and fuin ‘sunset’, ‘end’.

Whitley Stokes in KZ The Irish samain would be etymologically unrelated to ‘summer’, and derive from ‘assembly’. But note that the name of the month is of Proto-Celtic age, cf. Old Irish gem-adaig ‘winter’s night’.

Celtic art

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They were not a single unified race, and lived in tribes or clans with their own chief or king. The ancient Greeks coined the name ‘ Keltoi’ to refer to, as they saw them, their mysterious neighbours. To these people there were many sacred places in the living landscape. The ancient Celts revered nature and the elements, and worshipped the sun, moon, the stars and the Earth Mother, with a wide range of goddesses and gods.

They celebrated their deities, ancestors, life, the natural world and its creatures, and the changing of the seasons through their music, poetry, story telling and art. Their poets and musicians, the Bards, and their wise holy men, the Druids, were very high up in the social hierarchy of the tribe, training for many years in their orally learnt crafts, as nothing was written down. Their artisans were also well respected, and were stone carvers, wood and metal workers.

They created fabulous works of art in the form of stone monuments, also metal jewellery, weapons and armour, often inlaid with bright enamels. An often over looked art was that of tattooing, although we have no records of exact designs, we do have contemporary descriptions of tattooed Celtic warriors, written by Roman observers, who made a distinction between permanent tattoo symbols, and the also common use of blue woad as warpaint.

Go to the Celtic Art page for an article on ancient tattoo, by Hamish and his brother Dudley. The warriors were fearless due to the Celtic fact that the spirit is immortal – to die was an accepted fact of life – no matter, because you would be reborn again. Things that are mystery and fantasy to the modern world were accepted fact in ancient Celtic times – that is, the existence of strange beasts, giants, and little people, and of course the Otherworld.

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Mabinogion , actually a collection of a number of Welsh legendary narratives and epic poems. Irish god Lugh, who was called Samildanach or “long-handed” — both of which mean “good at everything”. Numerous other examples abound; the Irish did not shy away from the idea of women being competent fighters.

The following is a compilation of specific sources relating to the Belgae dating from circa BC to AD who have potentially contributed to the Y-chromosome haplogroup R-U in Britain and Ireland.

WhatsApp 11K Shares For centuries, Celtic symbols and signs held incredible power for the ancient Celts in every way of life. Celts were of the Iron Age and lived in small villages which were led by warrior chiefs. With its rich history and culture, Ireland has been home to various civilisations for thousands of years. These ancient communities used Celtic symbols that now have become part of the Irish identity and heritage.

Some of these Celtic symbols have even become symbols of Ireland itself. But did you know that these symbols have much deeper and surprising meanings? This neo-Druid symbol, which is a popular design for tattoos, jewellery and artwork, is said to be invented by Iolo Morgannwg, an 18th-century Welsh poet. However, studies suggest that the symbol might be older than initially thought. For instance, the two outer rays represent masculine and feminine energy, while the ray in the middle represents the balance between them.

There are multiple meanings for the Awen Celtic symbol. One interpretation is main outside lines are symbolic of both man and women while the inside line represents balance. The book of Celtic magic:

Please click on the following names or images to learn more about these deities:

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THE CELTS AND THEIR BELIEFS. Celtic people were at one time all over Europe, from the British Isles in the west, to even as far as what is now Turkey in the East.

Caitlin Matthews has chosen to base her deck on the Voyage of Maelduin. It is attributed to the poet and sage Aed Finn, a person about whom we know next to nothing about, except he was the original story-teller. But firstly, who was Maelduin? However, his friends were jealous and taunted him about his lack of parentage. As far as he was concerned he was the son of a king and queen, so confused he went to his mother and swore he would not eat or drink until she told him the truth.

In the end the Queen took him to his mother, the abbess, who told him who his father was and that he had died. One day he was moping about in a church yard when one of the monks began to shout at him, telling him to avenge his father rather than crying over him. However, he had to decide on the best way to approach his enemies and decided to go by sea. He cannot watch them drown so allows them to come aboard but the additional numbers to the crew messes up the strict magical advice of Nuca and the causes the adventure to go awry.

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Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc. Small bags of potato chips, pretzels and caramel corn Chocolates, caramels, and gum Pumpkin and Apple pie ice cream are sometimes enjoyed Around the World Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world, and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly. Celebration in the United States has had a significant impact on how the holiday is observed in other nations.

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Ancient Celtic Religion

The original designation was vague, including a large part of what became Normandy in the 10th century and, in some interpretations, the whole of the coast down to the Pyrenees. Later, the term became restricted to Brittany. Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History 2. Pliny lists the following Celtic tribes as living in the area:

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A Medieval English ‘Sheila-na-gig’ figure This is a modern reproduction of an original stone carving from a church in England. Naked Mature Women A naked modern woman as ‘Sheila-na-gig’ The power of sex to safeguard life and ward off death Sheila-na-gigs are sometimes seen with male figures, which display a prominent penis. The carvings are said to ward off death and evil.

Clearly, this means sex drive and sexual intercourse were once considered good and life-affirming. Temple prostitutes in Pagan religions of the ancient Near East had sex with worshipers as an act of devotion to the fertility goddess. Iambe is associated with or identical to Baubo, whose special gift was to dance for Demeter, telling her bawdy jokes, and finally to lift her skirt. This sexy, funny performance cheered up Demeter enough that she resumed her search for her kidnapped daughter Persephone.

It was Persephone’s abduction to the underworld by Hades that caused her mother to go into mourning. This brought eternal winter and stopped all crops from growing. Starvation threatened to snuff out human life. But re-energized by Baubo, Demeter found her daughter, negotiated her return, and brought sunshine and growing seasons back to earth. Baubo bares all in a similar Egyptian story about the goddess Isis. The sight of Baubo’s vulva brought Isis out of her grief at the death of Osiris.

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Background[ edit ] The ancient peoples now called “Celts” spoke a group of languages that had a common origin in the Indo-European language known as Common Celtic or Proto-Celtic. This shared linguistic origin was once widely accepted by scholars to indicate peoples with a common genetic origin in southwest Europe, who had spread their culture by emigration and invasion. More recent genetic studies have indicated that various Celtic groups do not all have shared ancestry, and have suggested a diffusion and spread of the culture without necessarily involving significant movement of peoples.

Carved stone ball from Towie in Aberdeenshire, dated from — BC [7] Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.

Its English form is modern, attested from In the late 17th century the work of scholars such as Edward Lhuyd brought academic attention to the historic links between Gaulish and the Brythonic —and Goidelic —speaking peoples, from which point the term was applied not just to continental Celts but those in Britain and Ireland. Then in the 18th century the interest in ” primitivism “, which led to the idea of the ” noble savage “, brought a wave of enthusiasm for all things Celtic and Druidic. The “Irish revival” came after the Catholic Emancipation Act of as a conscious attempt to demonstrate an Irish national identity, and with its counterpart in other countries subsequently became the ” Celtic Revival “.

Pre-Celtic periods[ edit ] The earliest archaeological culture that is conventionally termed Celtic, the Hallstatt culture, comes from the early European Iron Age, ca. Nonetheless the art of this and later periods reflects considerable continuity, and some long-term correspondences, with earlier art from the same regions, which may reflect the emphasis in recent scholarship on “Celticization” by acculturation among a relatively static population, as opposed to older theories of migrations and invasions.

Megalithic art across much of the world uses a similar mysterious vocabulary of circles, spirals and other curved shapes, but it is striking that the most numerous remains in Europe are the large monuments, with many rock drawings left by the Neolithic Boyne Valley culture in Ireland, within a few miles of centres for Early Medieval Insular art some 4, years later.

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Her unhappiness in marriage caused her to frequently seek out the companionship of her lover Ares. Aphrodite also became instrumental in the Eros and Psyche legend, and later was both Adonis’ lover and his surrogate mother.

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